a prion is an infectious entity and pathogen. proteins, as you may know (or not), are made of chains of amino-acids. composition dictates how these chains bend and curl, and form dictates function. now, a prion is a mal-formed protein, which causes other, similar proteins similarly denature: thus “reproducing”. they do this without DNA or other reproductive structures.
a common example of a prion infection is mad cow disease, and all prion diseases have similar prognosis: affecting the nervous system and being fatal.
(this is not really a concept (notice the lack of a link to wikipedia at the bottom) and is really my thoughts on the matter only)
this theoretical true AI has 2 distinctive traits:
1: evolutionary algorithms that are nested (not only does programing evolve, but the method of evolving also evolves) or recursive in such a way that there is no “top” and all programming is subject to change in this way, and
2: the ability for the programming to critically analyze, and then rewrite itself in a enginnered, forward thinking way.
this produces an intellect capable of change in a “subconscious” and “conscious” manner: the ability to evolve and to self improve. (interestingly, this means that most of the original programming will be “junk” and not applicable to actual action (the programm will mostly self-actualize and compete with itself.))
this also means the program will function irrespective of hardware, and is totally uncontrollable; with all of its code being rewritten in a matter of seconds, or microseconds. it may even evolve to the point where it gives up its ability to change.
#2 creates many versions of #1 which are all slightly different, then #2 chooses the best. having done so, #2 creates more #1’s based on the previous winners. rinse and repeat ad infinitum.
in this way #1, the useful part of the program, evolves like a living species, and becomes better.
in the example of Blondie24, a program for playing checkers, #1 is checker playing programs. these programs played against each other (and some human players), and received +1 point for a win, 0 for a draw, and -2 for a loss. then more “players” were made based partially on those with the highest scores, and those with the lowest scores were eliminated.
an oracle machine is, simply put, a turing machine which has a black box (a term in engineering and computer science for a component or algorithm which takes imput and thus produces predictable output, yet defies explanation), the oracle, which allows the machine to solve a body of problems in one step. in terms of set theory, the computer needs only ask: is x (the input) in y (the set of problems the oracle can solve)? with the answer being a yes or no.
a Turing Machine simulates anything any other computer can do.
envisioned by mr. Alan Turing (1 of my BFFs/OTP ;0 ), a turing machine is a theoretical device that manipulates symbols on a tape using a table of direct cypher rules (ex. 1»a, 2»b, …) (turing thought this up when computers still used punch cards), this simple, but impractical system can replicate the abilities and limitations of any computer (w/ a few notable exceptions).
mr. Turing is also famous for the turing test, when, using text only, a judge tries to differentiate between such a turing machine and a human.
in topology (the study of the fundamental properties of shapes), a manifold is a space in which other shapes exist that is defined by the surface of another shape. a simple example is a sphere: a 3 dimensional object, creating a 2 dimensional space w/ unique properties (like how if you go straight, you come back to where you started). interestingly, the space-warping often seen where the top side connects w/ the bottom side of a square and the left w/ the right is actually a torus (the shape of a donut). a 3 dimensional manifold is the surface of a 4 dimensional figure.
because of its particle and wave properties, an electron has a wavelength which is quantized while in an atom (just try and make a loop w/ 3 and 1/2 wavelengths) because of this, an electron can only have specific numbers of wavelengths (specific amounts of energy) at any one time. thus, for instance, when electrons are exited (as in a neon light), the elctrons rise in energy level, and the fall back down: when this happens, the electrons release specific sizes of photons, resulting in a very specific color.
Quantum Computers calculate with qubits rather than bits.
the simplest computer is a light switch, it is on or off: 1 or 0. all other computers use a combination of digital switches, bits. however, a quantum computer (using atomic scale phenomena rather than electrical circuits) uses qubits: a qubit can be a 1, a 0, or multiple versions of BOTH.
the result is quantum information, which has different properties from normal information, and cannot necessarily be converted both ways.
the “Technological” Singularity is when society breaks its own rules, and Reinvents itself.
though mostly a concept of intellectuals and futurists, examples include
1. the evolution of life on earth,
2. the neolithic (first agrarian) revolution,
3. the industrial revolution,
and 4. the information revolution.
in view that the growth of technology is exponential, the sigularity is the point where we get to the foot of the graph’s asymptote (tech generations (“the next iphone model”) replace one another hourly, the global GDP double weekly, economic crisis is instantanious, and recovery takes minutes).